By Julia Strehlau-Jacobs

Determined as can be, the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe 2016-09-16-1474044012-2676960-defend_the_sacredprotested the construction of what they call the “Black Snake”, the North Dakota Access Pipeline. It will run from the Bakken Oil Fields in North Dakota through South Dakota, Iowa, and finally Illinois, where it ends in Patoka. Along its way, Dakota Access dug and routed the pipeline underneath the Missouri River and across tribal land. Running nearby both the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers, the pipeline puts these streams at great risk of pollution from oil spills. The drinking water of millions of people is therefore in danger of pollution. Furthermore, it runs across tribal land where scared sites and burial grounds have been destroyed. However, the tribe had little to say about land that is just off the reservation. Throughout history the federal government has systematically reduced the size of Indian Reservations and violated treaties. To completely understand the urgency of the protest at Standing Rock and the historical connection to the watershed, we have to take a look at the history of the Sioux Nation and its various reservations.

The Great Sioux Nation, as the name suggests, consists of a great number of different groups of the Sioux tribe. Today there are 14 Reservations in the US and 9 Reserves in Canada which the various bands call home. This provides us with an idea of the extent and variety of the Sioux Nation, however, we must remember that the history of all those groups varies. On American soil, or what soon would be part of the young country, the frontier territories were in the process of discovery and settlement by the American government and European settlers. With the Louisiana Purchase, President Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark as the first government officials to encounter the Natives of the American West. Soon after, Western tribes found themselves trading and signing friendship treaties with pale skinned and foreign sounding Americans. The first ‘Peace and Friendship’ treaties between groups of the Sioux and the American government were signed in 1815 and 1816. These treaties entailed for one that these groups remained loyal towards American settlers and officials as opposed to those from other countries, like the British for example. Consequential it aimed at preventing Indian tribes to ally with foreign and enemy forces to America. Furthermore, the treaty put these groups under the protection of the United States. In 1825, other friendship treaties were signed. Those put various groups under the protection of the United States, regulated trade with Americans and called for peace among several Indian tribes. None of the other treaties that were signed that year dealt with land cessions. We need to keep in mind that in the early 19th century contact among English speaking settlers and Native peoples was still not common. The language barrier was very high, and most likely many of those American Indians who signed the treaties were not aware of their content. Mistranslations were very likely to have happened.

1851 marks the year of first land cessions and first establishments of Indian Reservations in the American West. The ‘Treaty of Traverse des Sioux’ was signed on July 23 of 1851 between the Eastern Sioux in Minnesota and Iowa and the United States, leaving them with only a small area to settle along the Minnesota River. The other, and better known treaty signed on September 17 of 1851, was the ‘Fort Laramie Treaty’. This treaty, also known as the ‘First Ft. Laramie Treaty’ had tremendous impact on not only the Western, or Teton, Sioux, but also seven other tribes of the American West, among them Crow, Assiniboine, Cheyenne, and Hidatsa, to name a few. The Teton Sioux, also known as the Dakota Nation, included the Oglala Sioux and other Sioux groups of the plains, signed the treaty granting the United States the right to build roads and military and trading posts on Native land. The tribes agreed to face American travelers, traders, and laborers peacefully. However, travelers, settlers, and hunters, did not stay on designated roads and were already hunting scarce buffalo. The treaty established the ‘legal’ homeland boundaries of the Oceti Sakowin, the Seven Council Fire, which united the Lakota, Nakota, and Dakota peoples. Referred to as the Original Great Sioux Reservation their homeland including “present-day South Dakota west of the Missouri River, part of western North Dakota, and large areas of eastern Montana, Wyoming, and western Nebraska, [it] was centered on the Black Hills of South Dakota, which were considered the sacred heartland of their lives, lands, and culture” (Dunbar Ortiz, 1977: 22). We can imagine that the treaty did not pan out the way it was supposed to. Travelers on the Oregon Trail and other main traveling routes increasingly got into fights with Indians, to a point at which the army interfered and held deceitful power games, intruding in Indian land, violating treaty rights, and killing Indian people. As conflict was inevitable with the increasing number of people coming to the United States and the connected westward expansion, it was time for another treaty.

The Second Ft. Laramie Treaty of 1868 eventually established what today is known as the Great Sioux Reservation. Its boundaries entailed “all of South Dakota west of the Missouri River […] and acknowledged that other Sioux lands –  in western Montana and Wyoming – were “unceded” Indian land, in which the Sioux and Cheyenne could continue to hunt without interference” (Dunbar Ortiz, 1977: 24). On the reservation, the US government established agencies at which the Indians were to live. Furthermore, churches of any belief were introduced on reservations throughout the West. The goal was to educate and Christianize the Indians in a way that would fit the America of the white man. The hardest setback for the Sioux, however, was the intrusion into the Black Hills by gold rushers. No-one less than General Custer led the exploratory expedition for gold in the mountains, and later publicly announced the discovery thereof. The Battle at the Little Bighorn in 1876 was a key incident in the tribe’s fight against the exploitation of their sacred hills. Unfortunately, the Sioux were eventually forced to sell the Black Hills to the US government in 1877, which opened up the territory for mining. This is the start of what today is known as the Reservation period. During this time, sovereignty, freedom, and dignity started to be taken away from Native Americans.

In need for ever more land for white settlers and gold-miners the American government once again diminished the size of the Great Sioux reservation. In fact, 1889 defined the end of the Great Sioux Reservation. The General Allotment Act, note that it was an act, not a treaty, split the reservation up into five distinctively smaller reservations: The Standing Rock Reservation, the Cheyenne River Reservation, the Lower Brule Indian Reservation, the Rosebud Indian Reservation, and the Pine Ridge Reservation. And this was the final step to establish the reservations as they are today. Nine million acres of land was made available to white homesteaders and ranchers with the General Allotment Act of 1889.

From this point, we will jump in history to put the struggle surrounding the Dakota Access Pipeline into historical perspective. This shall not leave other struggles the tribe faced, as the Dawes Act, imposed education for Native American children in boarding schools, and others, unacknowledged. However, the Standing Rock Sioux had to fight for their water rights long before the Dakota Access Pipeline.

Severe draughts and heavy flooding in the Mid-West throughout the 1930’s and 40’s urged several water management agencies to develop plans for irrigation- and flood control of the Missouri River. Lewis A. Pick from the US Army Corps of Engineers, and Glen Sloan from the Bureau of Reclamation both submitted plans for the introduction of dams along the Missouri River which were to benefit flood control, help the irrigation of drier parts of the Plains and generate electricity. In 1944, Congress passed the ‘Flood Control Act’ and with that ratified the Pick-Sloan-Plan which was now called the ‘Missouri River Basin Development Program’. $200 million was approved for the project which authorized the construction surrounding the Missouri River on seven Indian American reservations. It is unfortunate that neither of the tribes had been informed about any such plans when they were made, but only after the project was confirmed and construction about to begin. Two of the affected reservations were the Standing Rock Sioux and the Cheyenne River reservations which were to sacrifice 200,000 acres of very valuable tribal land. The construction of the Oahe Dam, which is located North of Pierre, SD started in 1948 and finished in 1962. During the process of construction and later preceding the flooding of Lake Oahe, families were relocated, and forcibly or even at gun point removed from their homes. Their way of life was changed forever. The fertile land that disappeared under the water of the Missouri River was home to sacred burial grounds, old gardens, and ancient medicinal plants and were therefore places of spiritual significance. Until then the tribe was mostly independent from the industry, but then homes and whole villages were destroyed. The resources for the local timber economy and with that the forest wildlife and hunting grounds perished. For most people life as they knew it had ended and they had nothing left. Until today the people of Standing Rock live in high poverty and are mostly dependent on the federal government. They were never fully compensated and are left very vulnerable. And today, we are witnessing the continuation of injustice and wrong-doing to a sovereign nation that over generations has been traumatized and mistreated by the federal government of the United States of America.

The North Dakota Access Pipeline is yet another proof that big companies govern this country and that there is no room for ancient cultures in the world of money and fossil fuels.

April 2nd, 2016 was the day on which LaDonna Brave Bull Allard, at the time the THPO of the Standing Rock Tribe, established the Sacred Stone Camp on her land. It was the last solution to unheard written protests opposing the Dakota Access Pipeline. After generations during which the Sioux’s treaty rights have been violated and ignored, the Standing Rock Sioux stood up and said ‘NO’ to yet again another threat to Native land and the environment.

The controversy surrounding the pipeline goes back to the Ft. Laramie Treaty of 1851. Even though the route of the pipeline does not cross the current boundaries of the Standing Rock reservation it crosses unceded territory that belongs to the tribe according to that treaty. It is land where ceremonies were held and ancestors are buried, it is sacred. Other than the federal government, the tribe rely on the treaty boundaries of 1851 and recognizes them as valid. Representing his tribe, the chairman David Archambault II has opposed the construction of any pipeline within those boundaries for a long time before planning for Dakota Access had even started.

After the development of Dakota Access started, it was initially routed nearby Bismarck, ND, a city of over 60,000 people. The concern was that possible oil spills would jeopardize the drinking water in the Bismarck area. Therefore, it was quickly re-routed, now very close to the Standing Rock Indian Reservation. The re-routing included that the pipeline would tunnel under the northern end of Lake Oahe, which is part of the Missouri river, and the primary source for clean drinking water for the tribe, and millions downstream.

And it is not solely about land, or treaty rights. The Sacred Stone Camp and other camps that evolved over the long period of protests by water protectors aimed at promoting awareness that ‘Water is Life – Mni Wiconi’. It is not only Native life that is at danger here. Their prayers included all creatures along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. The protests were joined by Native peoples of several hundred American Indian tribes. Historic enemies to the Sioux tribe joined the Camp and united with them in peace. Native peoples from other countries, the Maori from New Zealand for example joined the ceremony. Celebrities and people of all colors from all around the country stood hand in hand for the rights of America’s Indigenous peoples.

Unfortunately though, the protests turned violent during a few incidents in which law enforcement used mace, dogs, water hoses and rubber bullets against the protectors. Eventually, the Army Corps of Engineers reviewed and approved the route of the pipeline; and with the signing of President Trumps Executive Order on January 24, 2017, the path to completion of the pipeline was paved. The Sacred Stone Camp was to be cleared by February 22nd of 2017, which it was.

When researching the protests at Standing Rock, tribal members repeatedly stated that if the ‘The Black Snake’ would not be stopped, it will mean the end to the tribe. Protectors were so committed to the cause of ‘Mni Wiconi’ that they would have given their lives to ensure a safe future for the children and the unborn generations. This setback once again deepens the trauma which the tribe has been dealing with for a good century and a half. The only hope is that the uprising of the Sacred Stone Camp and the attendance of thousands of people on the reservation and attention worldwide, will have a lasting encouraging impact. The world recognized that injustice was done to Native people and this time the world stood up with them.

“Until the American system comes to a realization of the sacred ethic – value secured upon responsible and shared relationships – told very painstakingly in Indian oral history, it will continue to ignore everything except that which is exploitable and easily justified and its progress towards self-destruction will be steady.” (Dunbar Ortiz, 1977:15)

 

Sources:

Dunbar Ortiz, Roxanne. The Great Sioux Nation. Sitting in Judgement on America. Lincoln:   University of Nebraska Press, 1977.

Lee, Trymaine. “No Man’s Land: The Last Tribes of the Plains.” MSNBC.com

Holywhitemountain, Sterling. “An Indian Perspective on the Protest at Standing Rock.”      Montana Quarterly. Vol.12, No.4 (Winter 2016): 8-18.

Videos:

  • Sacred Water: Standing Rock, Part 1
  • Red Power: Standing Rock, Part 2

 

Did you Miss it? The US apologized to Native Americans.

Posted: April 14, 2017 by extremehistory in Uncategorized

Buried deep within the 67-page Defense Appropriations Act of 2010 (H.R.3326) was a

Wounded Knee Massacre, Dec. 29,1890

Wounded Knee Massacre, Dec. 29,1890

small section (#8113, to be exact) titled: “Apology to Native Peoples of the United States.” “The United States, acting through Congress, apologizes on behalf of the people of the United States to all Native Peoples for the many instances of violence, maltreatment, and neglect inflicted on Native Peoples by citizens of the United States;” and “expresses its regret for the ramifications of former wrongs and its commitment to build on the positive relationships of the past and present to move toward a brighter future where all the people of this land live reconciled as brothers and sisters, and harmoniously steward and protect this land together.”

The Act was signed by President Obama on December 19, 2009 but never publically acknowledged.

You can read the act here: https://www.congress.gov/bill/111th-congress/senate-joint-resolution/14/text

(From the Bozeman Daily Chronicle, March 4, 2017)

I grew up along the edges of the Little Bighorn Battlefield Shane article National Monument. The history of this place coursed through my upbringing and forms a crucial part of who I am as an Apsaalooké (Crow) person. I often lead tours there now and relate the story of the battle that occurred in 1876 between Custer’s Seventh Cavalry and Plains Indian warriors. There’s no doubt that this battle was a defining event in the history of our country and our state.

Three-hundred and twenty-one thousand people visited the Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument in 2015. According to the National Park Service, those visitors spent an estimated $18.2 million in local gateway regions, supporting more than 300 jobs in the area and accounting for $23.6 million in economic output. While the location is a beautiful one, I’m quite confident that few of those visitors came to the Little Bighorn for the scenery. They came because the monument, like so many other national monuments, tells the story of who are and where we come from – as Native Americans, as European Americans, as Montanans.

National monuments have been made possible almost always through the Antiquities Act, a few times by Congress. A central pillar of Theodore Roosevelt’s legacy, the Antiquities Act gives U.S. presidents the authority to create national monuments – that is, to set aside and safeguard public lands with significant natural, cultural, historical, and scientific value. In the past 110 years, 16 presidents – eight Democrats and eight Republicans – have used the Antiquities Act to designate around 130 national monuments.

Our new secretary of the interior and a self-proclaimed Roosevelt conservationist, Ryan Zinke said during his confirmation hearing that one of his first orders of business will be to visit our nation’s newest national monument, Bears Ears. He’ll do so at the behest of Utah’s congressional delegation and governor, all of whom are gunning to have the designation revoked, as well as to dispose of our public lands entirely.

Bears Ears contains one of the greatest concentrations of archaeological sites in the world. Located in southern Utah’s canyon country, Bears Ears is spectacularly scenic. But, like the Little Bighorn, it’s also extraordinarily historical and even sacred. Contrary to the false rhetoric of Utah’s political leaders, its designation occurred as a result of a groundswell among tribal members and leaders in the area who, for decades, could do little but stand by as pot hunters, looters, and grave robbers desecrated and plundered ruins and artifacts that constitute their heritage. If any place ever fit the need for and purpose of protection through the Antiquities Act, Bears Ears is it.

As an educator and Crow tribal member, I’m calling on Secretary Zinke to respect the designation of Bear Ears. Revoking or reducing Bears Ears would set a precedent that would have destructive repercussions well beyond Utah and put other national monuments at risk, including those in Montana. It would mean caving to and emboldening Utah Congressman Rob Bishop and other anti-public land extremists who have asked President Trump to revoke or shrink all Clinton and Obama-era monuments and who are currently sponsoring legislation that would gut the Antiquities Act.

Catch a video with Shane made by Alexis Bonogofsky here.

MSU Students Create a Dumpster Museum
by Brittany Hackwell – MSU History Undergraduate

As a self-dubbed museum enthusiast, much of my time is spent at, looking up, or thinking about exhibits. So when my professor for my Public History: The World At War mentioned that we would be creating a pop-up museum for Montana State University’s campus, I immediately perked up. The limits we were given consisted of a budget, and that the project had to do with Montana and World Wars. Ideas started to get thrown around, we started with simple posters being hung in one of the halls, which moved to a makeshift structure holding our posters, which somehow managed to turn into using a dumpster. The idea seemed ridiculous; but ridiculous enough that we all liked it.

During the first few weeks of the planning, we worked hard to create a base idea for our museum. We decided to title our museum “Montana During The World Wars”, and split up into groups that would then create mini-exhibits. While at first I struggled to decide on a topic that would interest me enough, I ultimately decided on, and was assigned, to the Native American in the World Wars group. This topic proved especially difficult due to the lack of well-kept records in the state, so we eventually extended our project to soldiers who had any kind of connection to Montana. Our mini-exhibit featured information on Chief Plenty Coups, Joseph Medicine Crow, Joseph Oklahombi, the code talkers in WWI, and Private Ira Hayes who was one of the six soldiers in the famous “Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima” by Joe Rosenthal.

One of the groups in the class’s focus was on the structure itself. That was the group to really come up with, create, and eventually implement the structure. Within this project, they decided to somehow use the structure to include information on the structures of the war, namely trenches, from my understanding. That quickly snowballed into an impressive idea to use a massive dumpster to somehow show the realities within the hardships of the wars.

Over the next few months, we spent one class period per week working in our groups on our topics. The idea that this information that I was responsible for putting together would be reaching people who 1) weren’t my professor, and 2) may have little to no previous knowledge on this topic, and my poster could potentially be the first, or strongest, information they would receive and store was more motivation than I realized. Never before had I really considered that the work I did for research, and the effort I put into this, could affect other’s education and knowledge. Seeing as this was a Public History class, realizing all this was part of the curriculum, but for a hopeful museum curator, it was vital. After months of pouring our hearts into this research, and hours of attempting to create an informational, but equally aesthetic poster, I, along with the rest of my class I can assume, took a deep breath and submitted them all for printing.

native-americans-in-the-world-wars
On one of the last class days of the semester, the dumpster was on campus, and was eliciting a decent response from those who had no clue what was going on. We spent the class period, and some time afterwards, mounting our posters and our title, and seeing the finished product. The trench had been created by a team pulled together over the weekend, and was better than I would have ever expected. The floor was covered in boards, so walking through there in even the sturdiest of shoes was treacherous. It had boards set up so you could step up and see over the top of the trench, and look out on the battlefield (AKA MSU’s mall). The group had also included pictures, stories, boxes, and more miscellaneous items that added to the theme. The weather was a toasty 15 degrees, and there were piles of snow scattered throughout the trench, so Montana’s weather helped accentuate the feel and look of the trench.

Various social media accounts were created for this museum, a number of articles throughout the history community in Bozeman were featured, and we all worked to have this project spread by word of mouth. Tons of people saw the dumpster, many read the posters, and quite a few went through the trench and were able to leave Montana and finals week for just a moment as they experienced a (safe) version of a WWI trench, something very few would ever be able to experience, or even imagine.

This class had us reading a number of books and articles spanning from Christianity and propaganda in WWI to the modern day argument of religious rights on planes. On top of that, we all became experts in our own topics as we spent hours upon hours stressing over our projects. Up until then, while I understood the importance of informal education, I had only ever been on the receiving end of it. Now, I have gotten a glimpse of the difficult, detailed work that goes into getting even the smallest amount of information out. The concern that some of the information may not be completely accurate, or worded well enough to get the point across. This is the information people very easily could assume as gospel truth, and to have that power, and responsibility, to provide nothing but accuracy and ease of understanding, while also trying to create something worth looking at at all, is a hefty weight.

john-russell-poster

Image  —  Posted: March 2, 2017 by extremehistory in Uncategorized

lecture-series-schedule

Image  —  Posted: January 26, 2017 by extremehistory in Uncategorized

Fort Parker Purchase Finalized!

Posted: March 30, 2016 by extremehistory in Uncategorized

The Extreme History Project Announces that the Archaeological Conservancy has Finalized the Purchase of the site of Fort Parker, the First Crow Indian Agency. 

Bozeman, MT, 3/17/2016: The Extreme History ProjectFort Parker 2 is excited to announce that the Archaeological Conservancy has finalized the purchase of Fort Parker, the First Crow Agency. The agency, which lies just 9 miles east of Livingston, MT along Mission Creek, was built in 1869 and functioned until 1875 when it was moved to a site near Absarokee, MT on the Stillwater River. The history of Fort Parker is directly related to the development of Bozeman, MT, the creation of Yellowstone as the first national park and the movement of Montana Territory to Statehood.

More importantly, though, Fort Parker represents the first stage of enforced governmental intrusion into the lives of the Crow People. Though the agency was established by treaty as a distribution point for government goods promised the Crows in exchange for their government appropriated lands, it was also meant to transition these traditional buffalo hunters to a life of settled agriculture – a drastic change in lifestyle, still felt on the Crow Reservation today. “There are mixed emotions when discussing Fort Parker,” shared George Reed, Crow Cultural Committee Chairman, “somewhere between Fort Parker and Livingston is the place, Bisshiilannuusaao, where the Apsáalooke placed the government issued rations and the khaki army blankets on the ground and burned them, somehow they found out they were festered with the small pox germ.  When the bison herds were annihilated that was the beginning of the end of the Apsáalooke way of life that ended our nomadic lifestyle.  We relied on the bison for everything, when they moved on to better pasture we took down our tepees and followed them.  When the bison were gone our warriors could no longer go on war parties to prove their worth, leadership was earned, this changed our form of government, it also changed our diet from natural foods to beef and rations which has drastic effect, the most effected were the pregnant women our infantile mortality rate was very high.”

It is this history that makes the purchase of Fort Parker so significant. It is one of the first sites of the early reservation period of the Plains’ Tribes to be nationally recognized as an important historic site. This offers the long-awaited recognition of this dark period in our country’s history, the legacy of which is still felt today in Native American reservations across the Plains.

“We’ve purchased 15 acres along the creek.” noted Jim Walker, Southeast Director of the Archaeological Conservancy, The Conservancy’s purchase includes the extant remains of the agency building’s foundations and the adjacent stone construction known as ‘Kennelly’s Castle,’ which was constructed at a later period after the Fort was abandoned. Walker went on to insure that the site was now under perpetual protection from any purchase or development. The site will be fenced with access given by request through the Conservancy for educational and cultural programs. The Crow tribe will have unlimited and unregulated access to the site, which is still considered sacred as many ancestors lived, died and were buried at Fort Parker.

Emerson Bull Chief, Crow Tribal Historic Preservation Officer expressed the Tribe’s feelings about having this site preserved. “It is good that the Archeology Conservancy has made this purchase to preserve this historical site. For the Apsáalooke, history doesn’t begin at the Fort, our connection stretches back beyond 2500 years ago. The landscapes still hold the scars of our fasting beds, the names of places that are still used today and the final resting places of our ancestors. Although the Fort represented the darker times of Euro-American interaction with Native Americans, it is also an acknowledgement by the United States for the Western boundary of the Apsáalooke territorial homeland. In that sense, the Crow Tribal Historic Preservation Office supports The Extreme History Project and the Archeology Conservancy in the purchase, protection, and preservation of this important historic site.”

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Aerial photo of  the site of Fort Parker along Mission Creek

Marsha Fulton and Crystal Alegria of the Extreme History Project approached the Archaeological Conservancy in 2010 to look into the possibility of preserving the site. Livingston resident and Conservancy board member Roddy Stanton was instrumental in bringing Jim Walker to the table to start the conversation. Landowners Zena Dell Lowe, Darcy Lebeau and Rob Stephens of the Mission Ranch were enthusiastic about working with the Conservancy to insure the site’s protection, a place very significant to their late mother who owned the site up to her passing in 2011. “The family had taken excellent care of the site,” offered Marsha Fulton of the Extreme History Project, “and we were confident that in their hands the site would have remained protected and respected. However, if the property were to ever change hands, the site on private land would have been endangered. We all wanted to insure that this important historical place was honored, interpreted and preserved for future generations. Not only because it is significant to the history of Montana and the West, but because it is a place of sacred memory to the Crow Nation.”

The Archaeological Conservancy will manage and administer the site and the Extreme History Project in partnership with the Crow Tribal Cultural Committee, will create educational and interpretive programming about Fort Parker’s history. Fulton and Alegria have been compiling the documented history of the site and conducting oral histories with Crow tribal members to create a comprehensive database of historical materials. They are currently writing a book on the history of the site and intend to make all of their research materials accessible to the public in an online database.

“We are honored to facilitate the sharing of the Fort Parker story with everyone,” noted Fulton, “as it reminds us all of this painful history that we all share, though it’s not often told.”